Counseling Women in Behavioral Self-Direction

Helen Brandhorst Krumboltz and Johanna Shapiro

After consciousness raising, what? Women who want to alter their socialized responses may learn the necessary skills from counselors. Teaching behavioral self-management principles in the context of women’s sex role enculturation is a preventive as well as corrective approach to helping women develop increased personal effectiveness. It is also an important option for those who do not need therapy or who have found other skill training insufficient.

Helping women live up to their potential is a subject of increasing concern among counselors. The women’s movement has elicited criticism of the effectiveness of , traditional psychological methods in helping contemporary women (Chesler, 1972; Frieden; 1963; Greer, 1971) and simultaneously has brought forth a demand for more relevant strategies (Gardner, 1971; Rice & Rice, 1973). Responses have included a broad range of therapeutic possibilities (Franks & Burtle, 1974; Harmon, Birk, Fitzgerald, & Tanney, 1978), as well as specialized skill building, particularly assertion training (Bower & Bower, 1976; Butler, 1976; Jakubowski, 1973; Wolfe& Fodor, 1978).

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