Psychological Control and Morbidity/Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients: A 20-Year Follow-Up Study

John A. Astin, Johanna Shapiro and Deane Shapiro

The relationship between psychosocial factors and breast cancer outcomes remains unclear as well as controversial. For example, while Petticrew et al. failed to find an association between psychological coping styles and either cancer recurrence or survival, a recent meta-analysis found that stressful life experiences were related to higher mortality in cancer patients.

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